Thursday, February 6, 2020

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FOR TOYOTA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FOR TOYOTA - Essay Example In effect, the strategic management option is being undertaken for the sake of helping the company gain competitive advantage over its key competitors (Pollard, 2009). Pirttimaki (2007) has stressed that even though the annual revenues of Toyota Corporation could be said to be greater than any of its competitors, the company does not lead in all aspects of the industrial competition. This is because the car making industry in itself has several divisions, all of which must be competed for to gain global dominance. Some of these competitive components that the company engages in with its competitors include luxury vehicles, automobiles, commercial vehicles, motorcycles, and engines (Gilad & Gilad, 2008). Generally, the selection of the strategic management option shall be undertaken while critiquing against a specific model to justify why it is the best that the company can have. The model to be used in the critique is made up of three major sections namely suitability, acceptability and feasibility. Under each of the sections, there shall be sub-components against which the strategic option shall be tested with. The model to be used has been simplified below. The Differentiation Strategy The strategic management option selected for Toyota Corporation is the differentiation strategy. ... As the R&D takes place, it is important to also ensure that there is massive innovation that is directed at the need to meet consumer request and demand with style and flex. This is because as all competitors identifies the needs of consumers, it is he that has innovation with the needs that catches the eye of the consumer most (O’Hara, 2008). Secondly, it is important for companies undertaking the differentiation strategy to have the ability to deliver superior quality products and or services (Gilbane Report 2005). This is indeed a very centralized aspect of the strategy because quality remains a very crucial measure for competitiveness in contemporary global market and for the undertaking of competitive global engagements (Pirttila, 1997). This is because according to Ghoshal & Kim, 2006), the consumer behaviour of most people is changing of cost consciousness to quality consciousness. It would therefore take companies to set their quality apart be gain competitive advantag e. Finally, companies that desire to pursue differentiation strategy must be ready to undertake effective sales and marketing. The reason for this is that on a competitive market such as the one that Toyota finds itself in, almost all other competitors also engage in R&D and the delivery of high quality products and services. In effect, it is those who can effectively market and sell their quality and innovative products and services that really get to the customer (Alvesson & Skoldeberg, 2000). Application of the Model to the Differentiation Strategy Suitability Suitability generally refers to the question of whether or not the selected strategic management option is the right one for the company

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Mental and Behavioral Health Services Essay Example for Free

Mental and Behavioral Health Services Essay While the future of Mental and Behavioral Health Services continue to strive through many striving goals to develop continuous practices, treatments, evaluations, policies, and research, advancements are taking place to better the future of this program and its outreach to the people. Mental disorders are common in the United States and internationally. An estimated 26.2 percent of Americans ages 18 and older — about one in four adults — suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year.1 When applied to the 2004 U.S. Census residential population estimate for ages 18 and older, this figure translated to 57.7 million people.2 Even though mental disorders are common in the population, the main load of illness is concentrated in a much smaller proportion — about 6 percent, or 1 in 17 — who are suffering from a serious mental illness.1 In addition, mental disorders are the leading cause of disability in the U.S. and Canada.3 Many people suffer from mo re than one mental disorder at a given time. Roughly, 45 percent of those with any mental disorder meet the criteria for being strongly related to having 2 or more disorders.1 Awareness of having a disorder is very uncommon in the U.S. DEFINED FUTURE PROBLEMS Behavioral health is a state of mental/emotional being and/or choices and actions that affect wellness. Substance abuse and misuse are one set of behavioral health problems. Others include, but are not limited to, serious psychological distress, suicide, and mental illness (4. SAMHSA, 2011). Many of these problems are far-reaching and take a toll on individuals, their families and communities, and the broader society. Research allows us to get a better picture of what the future looks like and what people need to be continuing to do and improve on. By looking over research, statistics predict that by 2020, mental and substance use disorders will exceed all physical diseases as a major cause of disability worldwide. The annual total estimated societal cost of substance abuse in the United States is $510.8 billion, with an estimated 23.5 million Americans aged 12 and older needing treatment for substance use. Along with that, every year almost 5,000 people under the age of 21 die as a result of underage drinking and more than 34,000 Americans die every year as a result of suicide, almost one every 15 minutes. Also, Half of all lifetime cases of mental and substance use disorders begin by age 14 and three-fourths by age 24—in 2008, an estimated 9.8 million adults in the U.S. had a serious mental illness. The health and wellness of individuals in America are jeopardized and the unnecessary costs to society flow across Americas communities, schools, businesses, prisons jails, and healthcare delivery systems. Many programs and services are working together to minimize the impact of substance abuse and mental illnesses on America’s communities. Many practitioners have a very deep understanding approach to behavioral health and perceive prevention as part of an overall continuum of care. The Behavioral Health Continuum of Care Model helps us recognize that there are multiple opportunities for addressing behavioral health problems and disorders based on the Mental Health Intervention Spectrum, first introduced in a 1994 Institute of Medicine report, the model includes these components: ( It is important to keep in mind that interventions do not always fit neatly into one category or another) * Promotion: These strategies are designed to create environments and conditions that support behavioral health and the ability of individuals to withstand challenges. Promotion strategies also reinforce the entire continuum of behavioral health services. * Prevention: Delivered prior to the onset of a disorder, these interventions are intended to prevent or reduce the risk of developing a behavioral health problem, such as underage alcohol use, prescription drug misuse and abuse, and illicit drug use. * Treatment: These services are for people diagnosed with a substance use or other behavioral health disorder. * Maintenance: These services support individuals’ compliance with long-term treatment and aftercare. Two strategies for promoting the more important and most effective openings in having access to mental and behavioral health services include providing education to reach the public, and the prevention and early intervention matters intertwining with the Continuum model components of treatment and maintenance. 7 The New Freedom Commission Report and Surgeon General’s Report both emphasized the importance of changing public attitudes to eliminate the stigma associated with mental illness. Advocates for the mentally ill identify stigma and discrimination as major impediments to treatment. Stigma prevents individuals from acknowledging these conditions and erodes public confidence that mental disorders are treatable. A plurality of Americans believe that mental illnesses are just like any other illness; however, 25 percent of survey respondents would not welcome into their neighborhoods facilities that treat or house people with mental illnesses, suggesting that some level of lingering stigma persists.8 Sixty-one percent of Americans think that people with schizophrenia are likely to be dangerous to others9 despite research suggesting that these individuals are rarely violent.10 With that being said, the media plays a large role in shaping how the youth think and behave from many of the messages kids receive from television, music, magazines, billboards, and the Internet use. However, the media can be used to encourage positive behaviors as well. Four evidence based communication and education prevention approaches are through public education, social marketing, media advocacy, and media literacy that can be used to â€Å"influence community norms, increase public awareness, and attract community support for a variety of prevention issues† (SAMHSA). Public education is usually the most common strategy and is an effective way to show support to the development and success of programs and increase awareness about new or existing laws, publicizing a community based program, and reinforce instruction taught in schools or community based organizations. Through social marketing, practitioners use advertising philosophies to change social norms and promote healthy behaviors. Social marketing campaigns do more than just provide information and tries to convince people to adopt a new behavior by showing them a benefit they will receive in return.11 Social marketing campaigns are being used in a variety of social services and public health settings. Media advocacy involves shaping the way social issues are discussed in the media to build support for changes in public policy. By working directly with local newspapers, television, and radio to change both the amount of coverage the media provide and the content of that coverage, media advocates hope to influence the way people talk and think about a social or public policy12. Media literacy is a newer communications strategy aimed at teaching young people critical-viewing skills. Media literacy programs teach kids how to analyze and understand the media messages they encounter so they can better understand what they’re really being asked to do and think. Inferences about a program effectiveness relies on three things: (1) measures of key constructs, such as risk and protective factors or processes, symptoms, disorders, or other outcomes, and program implementation, fidelity, or participation; (2) a study design that determines which participants are being examined, how and when they will be assessed, and what interventions they will receive; and (3) statistical analyses that model how those given an intervention differ on outcomes compared with those in a comparison condition 19 In the past, practitioners and researchers saw substance abuse prevention different from the prevention of other behavioral health problems. But evidence indicates that the populations are significantly affected by these overlapping problems as well as factors that contribute to these problems. Therefore, improvements in one area usually have direct impacts on the other. According to the Substance Abuse and National Health Services Administration, not all people or populations are at the same risk of developing behavioral health problems. Many young people have more than one behavioral disorder. These disorders can interact and contribute to the presence of other disorders. Besides extensive research documenting strong relations between multiple problems, it’s not always clear what leads to what. Mental and physical health is also connected. Good mental health often contributes to good physical health. In the same way, the presence of mental health disorders, including substance abuse and dependence, is often associated with physical health disorders as well (OConnell, 2009). One major advancement that has been recently made is from The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, adding a new search feature to its National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) Web site. The feature allows users to identify NREPP interventions that have been evaluated in comparative effectiveness research studies. Both the Obama Administration and the U.S. Congress have championed additional investments in comparative effectiveness research to enhance public understanding about which healthcare interventions are most effective in different circumstances and with different patients. The new NREPP feature can provide added information for States and communities seeking to determine which mental health and substance abuse prevention and treatment interventions may best address their needs. The Surgeon General’s notes that â€Å"effective interventions help people to understand that mental disorders are not character flaws but are legitimate illnesses that respond to specific treatments, just as other health conditions respond to medical interventions.† (7) The two major influences that are targeted upon are risk and protective factors. According to SAMHSAs levels of risk and interventions, some risk factors are causal; others act as â€Å"proxies†, or markers of an underlying problem. Some risk and protective factors, such as gender and ethnicity, are fixed, meaning they don’t change over time. Other risk and protective factors are considered variable: these can change over time. Variable risk factors include income level, peer group, and employment status. Many factors influence a person’s likeliness to develop a substance abuse or related behavioral health problem. Effective prevention focuses on reducing those risk factors, and str engthening those protective factors, that are most closely related to the problem being addressed. Taken into consideration that preventive interventions are most effective when they are appropriately matched to their target population’s level of risk, The Institute of Medicine defines three broad types of prevention interventions, universal, selective, and indicated. Universal preventive interventions take the broadest approach, targeting â€Å"the general public or a whole population that has not been identified on the basis of individual risk† (OConnell, 2009). Universal prevention interventions might target schools, whole communities, or workplaces. Selective preventive interventions target â€Å"individuals or a population sub-group whose risk of developing mental disorders [or substance abuse disorders] is significantly higher than average†, prior to the diagnosis of a disorder (5. OConnell, 2009). Selective interventions target biological, psychological, or social risk factors that are more prominent among high-risk groups than among the wider population. Indicated preventive interventions target â€Å"high-risk individuals who are identified as having minimal but detectable signs or symptoms foreshadowing mental, emotional, or behavioral disorder† prior to the diagnosis of a disorder (6. IOM, 2009). Interventions focus on the immediate risk and protective factors present in the environments surrounding individuals. A more harsher or serious way of approaching prevention is through policy adoption and enforcement. Policy can be broadly defined as â€Å"standards for behavior that are formalized to some degree (that is, written) and embodied in rules, regulations, and procedures.†13 In order to work, these standards must reflect the accepted norms and intentions of a particular community. There are six major types of policy SAMHSA uses to prevent alcohol and other drug use through economic policies, restrictions on access and availability, restrictions on location and density, deterrence, restricting use, and limiting the marketing of alcohol products. Policy can be an effective prevention strategy—as long as the laws and regulations you put in place are consistent with community norms and beliefs about the â€Å"rightness† or â€Å"wrongness† of the behavior you want to legislate14. â€Å"The key to effective enforcement is visibility: People need to see that substance use prevention is a community priority and that violations of related laws and regulations will not be tolerated.† 6 Strategies that we use today for Enforcement are through surveillance, community policing, having incentives, and penalties, fines, and detentions. There have been many areas of progress in preventive intervention research since the 1994 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Reducing Risks for Mental Disorders: Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research. Experimental research has greatly improved mainly due to the advances in the methodological approaches applied to intervention research. For a range of outcomes, while the different types of intervention research has increased, so has the number of studies providing economic analyses in the costs and benefits of these interventions. As the 2001 U.S. Surgeon General’s report on children’s mental health indicated, there is a current need for improved and expanded mental health services for children and adolescents (15). There is a greater need for greater access to a variety of mental health services for children including both medication for emotional or behavioral difficulties and treatments other than medication. Recent research studies have documented the increased use of psychotropic medications (16). Less is known, though, about the use of nonmedication treatments for the emotional and behavioral difficulties of U.S. children. These treatments may include community-based services such as behavioral and family therapy provided by mental health professionals in clinic and office settings and school-based services such as assessments of mental health problems, individual counseling, and crisis intervention services for students (17,18). With the information collected by the mental health service questions in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), it will be possible to monitor future trends in the use of both medication and other treatments for the emotional and behavioral difficulties of children. Recommended changes by the Surgeon General include: †¢ improve geographic access; †¢ integrate mental health and primary care; †¢ ensure language access; †¢ coordinate and integrate mental health services for high-need populations. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) 1. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 2005 Jun;62(6):617-27. 2. U.S. Census Bureau Population Estimates by Demographic Characteristics. Table 2: Annual Estimates of the Population by Selected Age Groups and Sex for the United States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2004 (NC-EST2004-02) Source: Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau Release Date: June 9, 2005. http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/ 3. The World Health Organization. The global burden of disease: 2004 update, Table A2: Burden of disease in DALYs by cause, sex and income group in WHO regions, estimates for 2004. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2008. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GBD_report_2004update_AnnexA.pdf. 4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2011). Leading change: A plan for SAMHSA’s roles and actions 2011-2014. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA. 5. O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T., Warner, K. E. (Eds.). (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. 6. Compton, M. T. (2009). Clinical Manual of Prevention in Mental Health (1st ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. 7.. U.S. DHHS. 1999. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. 8. Pescosolido, B. et al. 2000.Americans’ Views of Mental Health and Illness at the Century’s End: Continuity and Change. Public Report on the MacArthur Mental Health Module, 1996 General Social Survey. Bloomington, Indiana. 9. Steadman, H.J. et al. 1998.Violence by People Discharged from Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Facilities and by Others in the Same Neighborhoods. Archives of General Psychiatry 55 (5): 393–401. 10. Borinstein,A.B. 1992. Public Attitudes Toward Persons with Mental Illness. Health Affairs 11 (3): 186–96. 11. Kotler, P. and Roberto, E. (1989). Social marketing: Strategies for changing pubic behavior. New York: Free Press. 12. Wallack, L., Dorfman, L., Jernigan, D., and Themba, M. (1993). Media advocacy and public health: Power for prevention. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. 13. Bruner, C. and Chavez, M. (1996). Getting to the grassroots: Neighborhood organizing and mobilization. Des Moines, IA: NCSI Clearinghouse. CSAP Community Partnerships (unpublished document). 14. Bruner, C. (1991). Thinking collaboratively: Ten questions and answers to help policy makers improve children’s services. Washington, DC: Education and Human Services Consortium 15. U.S. Public Health Service. Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health: A National Action Agenda. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. 2000. 16. Martin A, Leslie D. Trends in psychotropic medication costs for children and adolescents, 1997–2000. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 157:997–1004. 2003. 17. Steele RG, Roberts MC (Eds.). Handbook of mental health services for children, adolescents, and families. New York: Springer, 2005. 18. Foster S, Rollefson M, Doksum T, Noonan D, Robinson G, Teich J. School Mental Health Services in the United States, 2002–2003. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 05–4068. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2005 19. Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Youth and Young Adults: Research Advances and Promising Interventions, Institute of Medicine, National Research Council. 10 Advances in Prevention Methodology. Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Essay --

Chris Layton 12 September 2013 Block 1 Rough Draft Drugs & Athletes During the advancement of technology, athletes have been able to get powerful drugs that help them during physical activity. These drugs are also banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). They use these drugs to give them a competitive edge to keep up with the competition. Some athletes have distinctive trait that some do not like having a gene that helps them perform like the ACE gene helps perform in long distance events. Other athletes that compete have to use performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) to be able to keep up with them and have a chance to win. Performance enhancing drugs, including blood doping, stimulants, and human growth hormone, should be prohibited because of moral and ethical concerns and the personal consequences to athletes. Performance enhancing drugs have been used since ancient times. The use of enhancement substances for sporting events dates back to the ancient Greeks and ancient Maya. () Performance potions were utilized by the Greeks to increase their abilities and cocoa leaves were thought to be used by ancient Maya. () Today, athletes will go to many lengths to increase athletic ability, including: steroids, HGH, Amphetamines, and even animal or human organs just as the Greeks did in their time. () The most common performance enhancing drugs or treatment is blood doping, stimulants, human growth hormone (HGH), and anabolic steroids. Stimulants are a generic term to describe various substances that are ingested by athletes into the human body for the purpose of increasing alertness or general physical performance. Common stimulants that have been typically utilized by athletes in various disciplines are caffeine, amphetamines, a... ...drugs and go suspended for one and a half seasons. Performance enhancing drugs are not worth all the problems they can cause and definitely not worth your fans losing respect for you because they’re the ones who support you throughout your years. Overall, the negative effects of PED’s overweigh the positive effects of the use and abuse of them. The head of sports made the right move to ban, performance enhancing drugs, including blood doping, stimulants, and human growth hormone, should be prohibited because of moral and ethical concerns and the personal consequences to athletes. Performance enhancing drugs granted give you an edge over your competitor, but later in life you will regret using them because it’s effects will still be there rather you’re still on them or not. The World Anti-Doping Agency made the right move to ban all substances that harm yourself.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Comparison Between Joe Keller and Willy Loman Essay

Death of a Salesman and All of My Sons, two different plays written by distinguished playwright Arthur Miller, yet the two main characters Joe Keller and Willy Loman are notably identical to one another. Although both are not faced with similar situations, both Keller and Loman handle their situations with an ignorant and shallow mindset towards the world. Keller and Loman have significant tragic flaws which ultimately lead to their demise. Both characters are unable to accept reality the way others are capable of, the â€Å"American dream† has been corrupted and misinterpreted in their feeble minds, and abandonment has plagued them throughout their lives. The â€Å"American dream† seems to play a monumental role in distinguishing what is essential to be successful. Joe Keller believes that his son, Chris, deserves the business he built from the ground, up and does absolutely everything in his power to ensure that Chris will obtain Joe’s business. In Joe’s eyes, risking the lives of soldiers, making an abomination out of his former â€Å"best friend†, and separating a family in order to keep his business running smoothly is deemed more worthy than doing the right thing. Joe feels that he has done the right thing because he carried out these actions for his family. Willy Loman’s interpretation of the â€Å"American dream† is a tad bit more extravagant; Willy believes that the key to success is a matter of whether a person is well-liked or not. Throughout the course of his professional career as a salesman, Willy constantly concocts lies stating how he is well-liked all over the Northeast, as well as his weekly salary. Willy also tried to bring the dream upon his son Biff. While Willy’s son Biff was a student in high school, Willy continuously fed Biff these fantasies that one day, Biff would become a great football player. Willy preferred brawn over brains in Biff. Willy was unable to live the American dream and thus ventured on through Biff vicariously. When Biff decided not to finish summer school and then explore new endeavors out west, Willy began to grow furious with Biff because he was unable to hover over Biff and â€Å"lead† him toward success. In All of My Sons, Joe Keller is unable to perceive reality with his involvement in the busted airplane heads which led to the death of twenty-one soldiers of the Air Force. We the readers notice that the lie Joe tells to others has been so commonly practiced that it’s no longer a fabrication of Joe’s imagination, but in his opinion, the genuine truth. Joe becomes obsessive over Chris inheritance of Joe’s business and it seems as though he does this so that in the event that someone reveals the truth to Chris, there is no possible way that Chris could be ashamed after what his father did for him. Unfortunately for Joe, the truth is revealed too soon and Chris no longer is willing to follow in his father’s â€Å"murderous† footsteps; instead Chris is enraged by his father’s past actions and vows to either turn his father in or kill him. Willy Loman is beaten down by his failure of him and his son to live up to his expectations. Unlike Joe, Willy’s altered perception of reality conflicts with his everyday life. He is over exhausted and constantly has flashbacks which deceive Willy’s perception of reality. His flashbacks usually consist of Willy’s overbearing confidence in Biff’s future. Willy also has flashbacks where his successful brother shows up. To stack himself up against his brother’s success, Willy lies about how his business is prospering and how he nearly at the top of the metaphorical food chain in the sales world. In reality however, Willy is a struggling business man who barely makes ends meet. He needs to ask his friend Charley for money just to pay bills and make it seem like he is still making money so he is not a failure in the eyes of others. Willy resorts to these flashbacks when he faces adversity or when things are no longer in his control. Another common theme that leads to both characters fatal demise is their life of abandonment. Joe Keller faced abandonment from his sons Chris and Larry. Chris stood by Joe until he figured out Joe’s lies and mishandling of his business. Joe caused the death of twenty-one other soldiers to Chris and Joe could not be forgiven. Chris abandoned him and was even willing to let Joe rot in prison for the rest of his life. Larry, although now deceased, also abandoned Joe. After hearing news that Joe’s business was responsible for the deaths of his comrades in the Air Force, Larry decided to take his own life because he could not bear the fact that his father had done such a terrible thing. Chris read Larry’s suicide note to his father and this ultimately lead to Joe finally succumbing to all the pressure around him and forced him to end his life. Joe’s mistakes led to those around him abandoning him in the end, even though he did everything in his power to keep his loved ones surrounding him. Willy Loman’s whole life was masked by abandonment. Willy grew up without ever really knowing his father, his brother and role model could care less if Willy were to rot in Hell, and most importantly to him, his sons seem to be embarrassed by him and refuse to stand by him through all of his troubles. Also his boss, Howard, fires Willy when Willy is no longer of use to him and can no longer contribute positively towards the sales company. When at the restaurant, Willy’s son Happy goes as far as to say that Willy is not his father when trying to â€Å"pick up† a bunch of girls to later sleep with. Biff abandon’s Willy in the sense that Willy is trying to escape reality and that Willy is not extraordinary, but merely ordinary. Willy, with all his loved ones no longer standing by his side, decides to end his life and make one final attempt at fulfilling the American Dream by collecting life insurance to help support Biff start up a business that Biff is unwilling to succeed in. Both Joe Keller and Willy Loman were both the typical, hard working Americans. Unfortunately for them, they both contracted horrific tragic flaws which the common person can relate to. Their incapability to properly perceive reality, their misinterpretation of the American Dream, and the constant abandonment they had encountered ultimately led to their own demise.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

What Is the Boltzmann Brains Hypothesis

Boltzmann brains is a theoretical prediction of Boltzmanns explanation about the thermodynamic arrow of time. Though Ludwig Boltzmann himself never discussed this concept, they came about when cosmologists applied his ideas about random fluctuations to understand the universe as a whole. Boltzmann Brain Background Ludwig Boltzmann was one of the founders of the field of thermodynamics in the nineteenth century. One of the key concepts was the second law of thermodynamics, which says that the entropy of a closed system always increases. Since the universe is a closed system, we would expect the entropy to increase over time. This means that, given enough time, the most likely state of the universe is one where everything is the in thermodynamic equilibrium, but we clearly dont exist in a universe of this type since, after all, there is order all around us in various forms, not the least of which is the fact that we exist. With this in mind, we can apply the anthropic principle to inform our reasoning by taking into account that we do, in fact, exist. Here the logic gets a little confusing, so were going to borrow the words from a couple of more detailed looks at the situation. As described by cosmologist Sean Carroll in From Eternity to Here: Boltzmann invoked the anthropic principle (although he didnt call it that) to explain why we wouldnt find ourselves in one of the very common equilibrium phases: In equilibrium, life cannot exist. Clearly, what we want to do is find the most common conditions within such a universe that are hospitable to life. Or, if we want to be more careful, perhaps we should look for conditions that are not only hospitable to life, but hospitable to the particular kind of intelligent and self-aware life that we like to think we are....We can take this logic to its ultimate conclusion. If what we want is a single planet, we certainly dont need a hundred billion galaxies with a hundred billion stars each. And if what we want is a single person, we certainly dont need an entire planet. But if in fact what we want is a single intelligence, able to think about the world, we dont even need an entire person--we just need his or her brain.So the reductio ad absurdum of this scenario is that the overwhelm ing majority of intelligences in this multiverse will be lonely, disembodied brains, who fluctuate gradually out of the surrounding chaos and then gradually dissolve back into it. Such sad creatures have been dubbed Boltzmann brains by Andreas Albrecht and Lorenzo Sorbo.... In a 2004 paper, Albrecht and Sorbo discussed Boltzmann brains in their essay: A century ago Boltzmann considered a â€Å"cosmology† where the observed universe should be regarded as a rare ï ¬â€šuctuation out of some equilibrium state. The prediction of this point of view, quite generically, is that we live in a universe which maximizes the total entropy of the system consistent with existing observations. Other universes simply occur as much more rare ï ¬â€šuctuations. This means as much as possible of the system should be found in equilibrium as often as possible.From this point of view, it is very surprising that we ï ¬ nd the universe around us in such a low entropy state. In fact, the logical conclusion of this line of reasoning is utterly solipsistic. The most likely ï ¬â€šuctuation consistent with everything you know is simply your brain (complete with â€Å"memories† of the Hubble Deep ï ¬ elds, WMAP data, etc) ï ¬â€šuctuating brieï ¬â€šy out of chaos and then immediately equilibrating back into chaos again. This is sometimes cal led the â€Å"Boltzmann’s Brain† paradox. The point of these descriptions is not to suggest that Boltzmann brains actually exist. Sort of like the Schroedingers cat thought experiment, the point of this sort of thought experiment is to stretch things to their most extreme conclusion, as a means of showing the potential limitations and flaws of this way of thinking. The theoretical existence of Boltzmann brains allow you to use them rhetorically as an example of something absurd to manifest out of thermodynamic fluctuations, as when Carroll says There will be random fluctuations in the thermal radiation that lead to all sorts of unlikely events--including the spontaneous generation of galaxies, planets, and Boltzmann brains. Now that you understand Boltzmann brains as a concept, though, you have to proceed a bit to understanding the Boltzmann brain paradox that is caused by applying this thinking to this absurd degree. Again, as formulated by Carroll: Why do we find ourselves in a universe evolving gradually from a state of incredibly low entropy, rather than being isolated creatures that recently fluctuated from the surrounding chaos? Unfortunately, there is no clear explanation to resolve this ... thus why its still classified as a paradox. Carrolls book focuses on trying to resolve the questions it brings up about entropy in the universe and the cosmological arrow of time. Popular Culture and Boltzmann Brains Amusingly, Boltzmann Brains made it into popular culture in a couple of different ways. They showed up as a quick joke in a Dilbert comic and as the alien invader in a copy of The Incredible Hercules.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Spread Of Infectious Disease - 1072 Words

Globalization has introduced a dramatic increase in the movement of people, food, and manufactured goods. However, these increases have also lead to the exposure and spread of infectious diseases, negatively impacting the quality of global public health. While theoretically reducing this movement could reduce the spread of infectious diseases, there are many options that can be taken into consideration. Before we can begin to explore solutions to control the spread of infectious disease, we must consider what it is that actually contributes to its spread. The four most important concerns in recent years have been HIVAIDS, Tuberculosis, Cholera, and Malaria. The first two diseases are a cause of global concern due to its widespread exposure. The latter are a resulting problem of underdeveloped and poorer nations, which directly implies that globalization can actually help reduce these infections. Underdeveloped nations suffer from several problems that contribute to the spread of these diseases. Limited access to adequate public health systems are one of many troubling issues. Furthermore, these limitations can only accelerate the breakdown of the health system, Africa demonstrates an example of this vicious cycle. Spread of disease can trigger political instability, infected government officials or military leaders can straing economic resources, instill military coups, and lead to violent regime transitions, all of which can make it much more difficult to dedicateShow MoreRelatedThe Discovery of Vaccines Prevented The Spread of Infectious Diseases1342 Words   |  6 PagesThe discovery of vaccines prevented the spread of infectious diseases around the world. Vaccines control the spread of diseases such as measles, tuberculosis, smallpox, and the flu. In addition, vaccines increase the overall health of not only individuals, but of populations. Although these benefits prove effective on the world wide scale, the requirement of vaccinations of children to enter the public school system remains a current public health concern. Some argue that vaccines are dangerous forRead MoreSpread Of Infectious Disease Using Sir Model2875 Words   |  12 Pages Spread of Infectious Disease Using SIR Model Mitali Marwaha Rough Draft: November 2014 â€Æ' Infectious diseases have been historically devastating for mankind, having major impact population trends and human lifestyle. Outbreaks like smallpox were responsible for approximately 300-500 million deaths during the 20th century, while the Spanish flu eradicated 3%-5% of the world s total population. 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